Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Lord Of The Flies By William Golding - 1883 Words

Jack’s Journey To Supremacy â€Å" One death is a tragedy; one million is a statistic.† - Josef Stalin. When looked back at history, dictatorship has always been a cause of death and destruction. Power is not achieved individually and hence requires support of the society.Unfortunately, this can also be harmful and dangerous for the society. Lord of the Flies by William Golding is an allegory of the most ruthless dictator in history, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power. Golding, an english novelist, playwright, and poet, fought in the Royal Navy during WWII. Golding’s Lord of the Flies novel is not just about the boys on the island, but also the evil inherent in humans when all rules and laws are taken away. The horrors committed by Hitler is still†¦show more content†¦Golding focuses Lord of the Flies on two important aspects of human nature, intelligence and destruction. A society only functions when intelligence limits destruction. According to Goldin g, fear disrupts this balance. He uses characters like Jake, who represent the dark side of humanity and Simon, who represents a godly figure and is compelled to witness the declivity of humanity. Furthermore, when the idea of fear is brought up by the littlun on the island, chaos immediately disrupts the silence at the meeting. At this stage of the meeting, Jack tries to persuade the boys that he would protect them by killing the beast. Jack urges that, â€Å"Ralph’s right of course. There isn’t a snake thing. But if there was a snake we’d hunt it and kill it. We’re going to hunt pigs to get meat for everybody. And we’ll look for the snake too † (Golding, 36). Jack just discovered the hunt and is obsessed with it. Jack also introduces the idea of â€Å"killing† on the island. So if there is a beast on the island, he will hunt it. Jack at this point realizes that the only way he can now come to power is by killing the beast which woul d make the other boys on the island secure. Though Jack does not believe in the beast, he takes up the responsibility to kill the beast just to bring in confidence in the boys on the island. In fact, he also includes the boys in his hunt gaining their support. He expresses himself and

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Ethics Of Scientific Knowledge - 3566 Words

Cortni Volkman 7/30/2015 Science surrounds just about every aspect of human interaction but where does this scientific knowledge come from? The communication of scientific knowledge trickles in a fashion opposite to that of the filtration of water through a carbon scrubber, where the highest concentration of pure scientific knowledge exists within the prestigious community of scientists and scientific knowledge within the academic and public communities has to be filtered from the other particles of ideas, leaving much room for interpretation. This paper will explore these different interactions among various communities and how it shapes communication of scientific knowledge. One such community is that of the very scientists who do the research and publications which supply much of the scientific knowledge we know today. However, research and publishing is heavily time consuming and expensive so many scientist must seek out funding. Bias, or a conflict of interest, can be argued to exist in all aspects of s cience depending on when and how results are obtained. It is without discourse than to argue that all research, even that done at collegiate level, has some amount of bias whether from the funding received, the council from professors or advisors, or the availability of more advanced technology to obtain data (Krimsky 2012). Such bias from technological means can even limit what scientists can publish. Often the military relies on scientists for their expertise inShow MoreRelatedEssay on Views on the Importance of Science1010 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent views on the importance of scientific concepts in comparison to other branches of knowledge. In order to determine if it is reasonable to believe that science is a supreme form of knowledge, firstly we must determine what knowledge is. Knowledge can be seen as the act of knowing or understanding gained through experience or study. Thus in order for something to be considered as knowledge it must be true to the person who has that knowledge based on the information availableRead MoreNursing as a Discipline1565 Words   |  7 Pageswith Philosophy, Science and Ethics Raymund Christopher R. dela Pena Saint Louis University The discipline of nursing is concerned with how nurses interact with people in relation to their health and within their total environment. Nursing at its core is caring for people within their health experience. The effective nurse is able to think critically, feel deeply, communicate clearly, interact meaningfully, assume responsibility, exhibit a thirst for knowledge and act morally. The disciplineRead MoreScience Is The Pursuit And Application Of Knowledge971 Words   |  4 PagesWe all know that science is all of these. But, what is science? According to the Science Council (http://www.sciencecouncil.org), â€Å"Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.† This website further states: Scientific methodology includes the following: †¢ Objective observation: Measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool) †¢ Evidence †¢ Experiment and/orRead MoreDefinition Of A Neutral Question1633 Words   |  7 PagesThere is no such thing as a neutral question. Evaluate this statement with reference to two areas of knowledge. In order to evaluate this statement, we must clearly understand what is a neutral question. A definition of a neutral question can be: A question asked in such a way that it does not imply personal opinion or bias. I assume that a true question has to be neutral. If a question reveals to be non-neutral, the objectivity that defines a question doesn’t exist anymore. It becomes a statementRead MoreEthics Of Science : The Ethical Dilemma Of The Films Frankenstein And Jurassic Park 1204 Words   |  5 PagesEthics of Science The central ethical dilemma of many of the films and stories we looked at this semester hinged on the question of whether or not man should employ his knowledge of genetics and science to engineer or revive a species that had become extinct, usually due to natural processes. As a science major myself, it was interesting to explore these themes and the scenarios presented in each individual piece of literature. Questionable ethics run rampant in stories such as Mary Shelley’s FrankensteinRead MoreThe Three Major Factors Fueling International Technological Growth1271 Words   |  6 Pagesissues which arise out of technology and scientific research Business ethics or lack of thereof, is a major CSR issue with technology and scientific research. Research responsibility implies that research is done ethically. According to Sarukkai (2009), scientists believe the activity of scientific research is self-regulated, and as such, ethics do not apply. The author contends that science is a discourse of facts regarding the universe, while ethics is about human values and there is no correlationRead MoreA Brief Note On Criminology : Group Project Essay1239 Words   |  5 Pages Criminology: Group Project Name Institution Expert Witness An expert is a witness who has a knowledge or experience in a particular field that is beyond that of a layman. This knowledge and experience enable the particular expert witness to testify on regards to an issue that requires expertise to comprehend. To become an expert witness, a number of qualities must be possessed by the witness including, and not limited to, the number of years they have practiced their expertiseRead MoreEthics hinder scientific research. Do you agree?600 Words   |  3 PagesEthics hinder scientific research. Do you agree? Ever since the scientific revolution, there have been countless breakthroughs in the scientific field. From the invention of the light bulb to the computers we stare at daily, it is axiomatic that such things can only happen due to the advancement in science. However, a myriad of scientific researches today have received strong opposition due to the ethical concerns regarding the research. This essay will agree that ethics hinder scientific researchRead MoreCoe of Ethics1625 Words   |  7 PagesCode of Ethic Paper There are many healthcare organizations that follow their own mission with ethical values and company goals. The American Association for the Advancement of Science follows the mission statement of â€Å"advance science engineering, and innovations throughout the world for the benefit of all people.† (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2015) By following company goals, this statement can be reinforced. What are the organization’s goals and how are they tiedRead MoreNatural Sciences and Ethics1145 Words   |  5 Pageseveryone needs to consider when assembling experiment or a painting is ethics. Ethics would be a key on how should people act in certain situations and what behaviors are considered to be moral. Areas, natural sciences and arts provide knowledge which could be interpreted as transference of what we encounter and perceive throughout our lives. When it comes to the production of knowledge in natural science and arts, few knowledge issues are raised. To what extent does morality prevent us from doing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Integrity, Confidentiality and Professional Behavior of Internal Auditors Free Essays

Integrity According to The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), â€Å"The integrity of internal auditors established trust and thus provides the basis for reliance on their judgement†. IIA further added that to be integrity, internal auditors: * Shall perform their work with honestly, diligence, and responsibility. * Shall observe the law and make disclosures expected by the law and the profession. We will write a custom essay sample on Integrity, Confidentiality and Professional Behavior of Internal Auditors or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Shall not knowingly be a party to any illegal activity, or engage in acts that are discreditable to the profession * Shall respect and contribute to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization. According to the 2009 Global Integrity Survey conducted by Compliance Week and Integrity Interactive, polled more than 150 ethics and compliance executives at global companies worldwide. The survey shown that nearly two-third (64 percent) of respondents use risk assessment specifically to review their integrity risks and to modify their programs as necessary. It also shown that 57 percent said their internal auditors have periodically audit their integrity programs and functions. Besides that, the survey shown that nearly 80 percent of respondents commented they use the internal audit function to some extent. Melissa Klein Aguilar (2009) further added that internal audit departments play an important role in ensuring the effectiveness of the company’s integrity function. IIA do also issue a guidance says that internal auditors should â€Å"evaluate the design, implementation, and effectiveness of the organization’s ethics-related objectives, programs, and activities. Confidentiality According to Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), confidentiality is one of the four principles that internal auditors are expected to apply and uphold. IIA further explain that under confidentiality’s principle, internal auditors respect the value and ownership of information they receive and do not disclose information without appropriate authority unless there is a legal or professional obligation to do so. IIA had also outlined the rules of conduct for confidentiality, in which internal auditors: * Shall be prudent in the use and protection of information acquired in the course of their duties. * Shall not use information for any personal gain or in any manner that would be contrary to the law or detrimental to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization. Office of Internal Audit of Wayne State University further elaborates the rules of conduct that internal auditors are expected to follow in compliance with confidentiality’s principle. It stated that internal auditors shall: * Not participate in any activity or relationship that may impair or be presumed to impair their unbiased assessment. This participation includes those activities or relationships that may be in conflict with the interest of the organization. * Not accept anything that may impair or be presumed to impair their professional judgment. * Disclose all material facts known to them that, if not disclosed, may distort the reporting of activities under review. Be prudent in the use and protection of information acquired in the course of their duties. * Not use information for any personal gain or in any manner that would be contrary to the law or detrimental to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization. According to Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors, this principle is pertinent to internal auditors as they have access to a wide range of information and the employing organization needs to be assured that accessed information will be treated confidentially. Internal auditors also gather information through interviews, and interviewees need to feel assured that the information provided will be treated appropriately. Numerous corporate fraud cases happen in recent century such as Enron and WorldCom have triggered not only extensive academic whistleblowing studies, but also have caused legal ramifications that have led to the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 (Eaton Akers, 2007; Lacavo Ripley, 2003). Before this, there are limited studies that have used internal auditors as subjects. This could be because to the argument that the reporting make by internal auditors on corporate wrongdoings is not an act of whistleblowing, but is the role on internal auditor within the ambit of their profession (Jubb, 2000). Xu and Ziegenfuss counter-argue that what Cynthia Cooper (an internal auditor) did in the WorldCom was considered as whistleblowing, this shown that public may perceive that the internal auditor as a whistleblower. Another possibility is because of misperception that whistleblowing only relates to reporting parties outside of the organization (Keenan Krueger, 1992). According to Eaton Akers, 2007; Figg, 2000; Keenan Krueger, 1992; Near Miceli, 2008, whistleblowing can in fact occur internally or externally. Near and Miceli (1995) argue that internal auditors have higher credibility and power as whistleblower than other organizational members as they are more likely to influence management to terminate wrongdoing. According to The Global Economic Crime Survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCooper (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2009), internal auditing profession is indeed an important role in organizations as most frauds were detected by internal audit. It was supported by Miceli et al. (2008) states compared to other professions, the highest reported observation of wrongdoing was reported by internal auditors. Because of the nature of their works, internal auditors have directly or indirectly seen or confronted many opportunities for corporate wrongdoing and unethical acts to occurs, and the responsibility of disclosure of any wrongdoing is embedded in their job description (Near Miceli, 1985). Another issue is on whether or not internal auditors should whistleblow when they discover organizational wrongdoings. Internal auditors always face situations that involve conflict of interest while executing their dual-role duties (Armold Ponemon, 1991; E. Z. Taylor Curtis, 2010). The dual-role duties mentioned here are the role of internal auditors as employed by the organization, which subject to the needs and requirements of their employment, and the role as members of a professional body, they are required to adhere to the profession’s ethical requirements. Ahmad and Taylor support the view and assert that the role of internal auditors in providing auditing tasks for their organizational may cause ongoing conflicts. Zhang, Chiu and Wei (2009) argue that the â€Å"disclosing insider information to outsider’s breaches obligation to the organization, violates the written or unspoken contract, and elicits damaging publicity†. However, ethically, internal whistleblowing, as opposed to external whistleblowing, is preferred. This is due to severe damage caused by external whistleblowing as compared to internal whistleblowing (Park Blenkinsopp, 2009). In order to avoid the severe damages caused by whistleblowing, Vinten (1996) has suggested that an organization may minimize the risk by internalizing the whistleblowing procedure as part of the corporate communications. By having a proper whistleblowing procedure, organizations stand to benefit from actions of whistleblowers that may cause further substantial adverse consequences such as loss of sales, costly lawsuits and negative publicity. Professional Behaviour The general public demand professional accountants maintain a high ethical standard in order to maintain public confidence in the accountancy profession (Gordon Kiernander, 2009). The ethical principles that guide the work of auditors are listed as follows: * Integrity * Objectivity * Professional Competence and Due Care * Confidentiality * Professional Behavior (Farid Kerimov, 2011) Then, the professional behavior has been defined as high expectations for the auditing profession include compliance with laws and regulations and avoidance of any conduct that might bring discredit to auditors’ work, including actions that would cause an objective third party with knowledge of the relevant information to conclude that the auditors’ work was professionally deficient. Professional behavior includes auditors’ putting forth an honest effort in performance of their duties and professional services in accordance with the relevant technical and professional standards (Government Auditing Standards, 2010). The main objective of an auditor is to purvey services at the highest standards of performance to satisfy public interest (Michael C. Knapp, 2009). However, frequently, users don’t have the needful ability to appreciate if the services offered by the auditor are or are not in accordance qualitatively with their requests, reason of which they are forced to accept till the contrary test that the auditors act in a competent and professional way. The guarantee of integrity and professional competency of an auditor can be assured by the adhesion of them at an ethical code of the profession to which they belong (R. A. Kishore Nadkarni, 2000). If internal auditors or the internal audit activity is prohibited by law or regulation from conformance with certain parts of the Standards, conformance with all other parts of the Standards and appropriate disclosures are needed. Then, IIA’s International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards) is essential in meeting the responsibilities of internal auditors and the internal audit activity (The Institute of Internal Auditors, 2010). According to IIA’s International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards) Internal auditing is conducted in diverse legal and cultural environments; within organizations that vary in purpose, size, complexity, and structure; and by persons within or outside the organization. While differences may affect the practice of internal auditing in each environment, conformance with The IIA’s International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards) is essential in meeting the responsibilities of internal auditors and the internal audit activity (The Institute of Internal Auditors, 2010). Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing differentiate among the varied responsibilities of the entity, the internal audit department, the director of internal auditing, and internal auditors. The responsibilities as a consultant or internal auditor are listed as follows: I. Internal auditors should be independent of the activities they audit. II. Internal audits should be performed with proficiency and due professional care. III. The scope of internal auditing should encompass the examination and evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the organization’s system of internal control and the quality of performance in carrying out assigned responsibilities. IV. Audit work should include planning the audit, examining and evaluating information, communication results, and follow up. V. The Director of Internal Auditing Should Properly Manage the Internal Audit Department. (IIA Standards, 2010) The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (the Act) amended the Employment Rights Act 1996 and created a right to redress, enforceable by tribunal, in the event of unfair discrimination or dismissal by one’s employer as a result of â€Å"whistleblowing† – making a disclosure in the public interest. The Act sets conditions as to the subject matter of the disclosure, the motivation and beliefs of the worker, and the person(s) to whom the disclosure is made (Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998). According to Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998, the purposes of the act are: I. It aims to help prevent such disasters and corporate malpractice in general by encouraging workers with relevant information to come forward responsibly. II. The Act seeks to achieve this by offering a right to redress in the event of victimization if workers raise their concerns in the ways specified in the legislation. III. It is also hoped that the Act will promote a change in culture amongst employers, and encourage them to establish procedures to receive disclosures in good faith and act on them appropriately. The scope of the Act includes disclosures which, in the reasonable belief of the worker, show one or more of the following, taking place either in the past, the present, or likely to take place in the future: * A crime; Breach of a legal obligation (regulatory, administrative, contract law or common law); * Miscarriage of justice; (for which the appropriate prescribed person in England and Wales is the Chief Executive of the Criminal Cases Review Commission); * Danger to health and safety; (for which the appropriate prescribed person is the Health and Safety Executive, or the relevant local authority); * Damage to the environme nt; (for which the appropriate prescribed person in England and Wales is the Environment Agency); or * Attempts to cover up such malpractice. Apart from that, whistleblowers making an external disclosure to a prescribed person, instead of to their employer or via internal procedures, will be entitled to redress under the Act in the event that they suffer unfair discrimination or dismissal provided they: * make the disclosure in good faith; * reasonably believe that the information, and any allegation it contains, are substantially true; and * reasonably believe that the matter falls within the description of matters for which the person is prescribed. How to cite Integrity, Confidentiality and Professional Behavior of Internal Auditors, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

John Marshall the Great Chief Justice free essay sample

John Marshall: The Great Chief Justice John Marshall was born in Figurer County, Virginia on September 4, 1755. He was the first son of Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith. His role in American history is undoubtedly a very important one. As a boy, Marshall was educated by his father. He learned to read and write, along with some lessons in history and poetry. At the age of fourteen, he was sent away to school, and a year later he returned home to be tutored by a Scottish pastor who lived with the Marshall family. As a young college student, John Marshall was particularly impressed by the structures of professor George Withy.Withy was a lawyer, judge, and a signer of the constitution. Other students Of professor Withy were Thomas Jefferson, John Befriending, and Henry Clay. Marshall became a layover at the age of twenty five. As Brian Mincing says about Marshall in the article, His first cases were not important, but he handled them well and made a favorable impression on his neighbors; so favorable that they sent him to Richmond in 1 782 as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. We will write a custom essay sample on John Marshall: the Great Chief Justice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He became a prominent lawyer and was on his way to a successful future. Mr.. Marshall worked under the administration of John Adams starting in 1798.He was offered the position of attorney general under George Washingtons administration, but declined because he wanted to stay with his family and practice law in his home town of Richmond, Virginia. He was one of three delegates sent to France by John Adams in 1798. His reasoning for taking the job in France was partly because it was only a temporary mission and also because he wanted to be of service to his country, aiding in peaceful relations with F-range. When he found out that France expected to be paid, he as outraged and believed they were soliciting bribery.Although the mission to France was a failure, he returned to the US a hero. Marshall was appointed to the position of secretary of state by John Adams in 1800. He was put in charge of foreign affairs and was often left in charge of the government when Adams was gone. Then, later that year, he was appointed to be chief justice of the US by Adams before Thomas Jefferson took over the presidency. Thomas Jefferson soon took office and John Marshall was now chief justice. Although the two were distant cousins, they held very different positions and longed to opposing political parties. Jefferson believed that the constitution should be interpreted strictly to keep the governments power relatively low. In the article, Mr.. Mincing sums up Marshals views of what government should be: Marshall believed in a strong central government, in the Constitution as the key to the laws of the land, and in courts as the supreme custodians of those lawsviews that would influence his shaping of the Supreme Court. Marshall believed that the Constitution should not be interpreted as strict, allowing the government to become more powerful. Possibly the most important case of its time was Mammary vs.. Madison in 1803. In this case, John Marshals ruling set an extremely important precedent. His ruling declared that a law was unconstitutional, therefore setting a precedent giving the Supreme Court the power to declare laws unconstitutional. Because of this ruling alone, John Marshall is a very prominent figure in American history and American law, but his achievements do not end at that. During John Marshals life, and particularly during his reign as chief justice, the power of the judicial branch became equally powerful to the other branches of the US government.

Friday, March 6, 2020

3 Sentences That Cause Confusion

3 Sentences That Cause Confusion 3 Sentences That Cause Confusion 3 Sentences That Cause Confusion By Mark Nichol In each of the following sentences, a word or phrase is an obstacle to comprehension. The discussion and revision that follows each example suggests a path to clarity. 1. Technology companies have a very different mind-set to traditional financial institutions. Comparisons structured as one is in this sentence should employ from rather than to, and note the insertion of the phrase â€Å"that of the† to indicate that the comparison is between mind-sets and not the entities that have the mind-sets: â€Å"Technology companies have a very different mind-set from that of traditional financial institutions.† 2. The agency found that contrary to its claims, World Wide Wickets failed to employ reasonable and appropriate measures to protect data. This sentence has an unclear antecedent: The pronoun its appears to refer to â€Å"the agency,† because no other entity has yet been identified, but it is a reference to the company subsequently mentioned. For clarity, use a specific proper noun (for example, â€Å"World Wide Wickets†) or a specific common noun (for example, â€Å"(the) company†) first, then a pronoun (or, in this case, use a proper noun on first reference and a common noun on second reference, bypassing the need for a pronoun at all): â€Å"The agency found that contrary to the claims of World Wide Wickets, the company failed to employ reasonable and appropriate measures to protect data.† 3. Jones faces criticism of others who oppose his policy positions, as does opponent John Smith and many others. This sentence is ambiguous- it could mean that Smith and many others face the same criticism as Jones, or the phrase â€Å"as does† could apply not to the verb faces but to the verb oppose. (In this case, the latter option applies.) To eliminate possible confusion, chose a clearer word or phrase in place of the nebulous â€Å"as does†: â€Å"Jones faces criticism of others who oppose his policy positions, including opponent John Smith and many others.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Fly, Flew, (has) FlownFlied?75 Idioms and Expressions That Include â€Å"Break†Oppose and Opposed To

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Social Network Website Design & Justification Assignment

Social Network Website Design & Justification - Assignment Example Users are then prompted to complete their public profile. Completing the contact details and public profile section allows users to effectively participate on the online community forums. For example, they can use their screen name to share their blood donation pictures online. One a first user is logged into my account, they will find a number of interactive features that will help them navigate the interface and customize their own profile the way they want. New users can also click navigation help to learn how to interact with the interface of the site. Returning users will have enhanced interactive features that allow them to donate blood, track their donation. They will also be able to build their reputation based on their number of friends and the number of donations, ratings. The website will incorporate a number of links to various online games where by registered users who are online will be able to play win/loose games with other users who are also online. One of the main social network games that will be in cooperated into the new site is a farming simulation game known as FarmVille. The proposed design of the social media site for Canadian blood services has a number of interactive features that are not only designed to enhance the usability of the social media site but also to motivate potential users into donating blood as well as increase the number of people joining signing up into the site. For example, to attract more people to the new site, various features have been included to allow registered members of the donor community to invite their friends through other social media channels such as Facebook and twitter by click â€Å"add friend† or â€Å"invite others† buttons. On the other hand, non registered users and visitors can also share the contents of the social media site to their twitter or Facebook accounts. Once individuals have been attracted to the site, the next important challenge is to motivate them to successfully undergo